The author displays great sensitivity in dealing with the tensions and contradictions in late Ming society, and even when one disagrees with his interpretation of certain facts or events, one cannot help but be impressed by the depth of his knowledge and his enviable ability to bring the characters in his story to life. In places, for example, his description of what it was like to be the Wan-li emperor is nothing short of masterly. Will become required reading for anyone interested in this period of Chinese history.
Thus we meet such phrases as the "the catholic resurrection" Justin Martyr"the catholic goodness of God " Tertullian"the four catholic winds" Irenaeuswhere we should now speak of "the general resurrection", "the absolute or universal goodness of God ", "the four principal winds", etc.
The word seems in this usage to be opposed to merikos partial or idios particularand one familiar example of this conception still survives in the ancient phrase "Catholic Epistles" as applied to those of St.
The combination "the Catholic Church " he katholike ekklesia is found for the first time in the letter of St. Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans, written about the year From this time 1587 a year of no significance essay writer the technical signification of the word Catholic meets us with increasing frequency both East and West, until by the beginning of the fourth century it seems to have almost entirely supplanted the primitive and more general meaning.
The earlier examples have been collected by Caspari Quellen zur Geschichte des Taufsymbols, etc. Many of them still admit the meaning "universal". Polycarp, xvia phrase which necessarily presupposes a more technical use of the word, is due, some critics think, to interpolation.
On the other hand this sense undoubtedly occurs more than once in the Muratorian Fragment c. A little later, Clement of Alexandria speaks very clearly. From this and other passages which might be quoted, the technical use seems to have been clearly established by the beginning of the third century.
In this sense of the word it implies sound doctrine as opposed to heresyand unity of organization as opposed to schism Lightfoot, Apostolic FathersPart II, vol. In fact Catholic soon became in many cases a mere appellative--the proper name, in other words, of the true Church founded by Christ, just as we now frequently speak of the Orthodox Churchwhen referring to the established religion of the Russian Empire, without adverting to the etymology of the title so used.
It was probably in this sense that the Spaniards Pacian Ep. The title, for instance, of his longest work is "On the Unity of the Catholic Church", and we frequently meet in his writings such phrases as catholica fides Ep. Hartel, II, ; catholica unitas Ep.
The one clear idea underlying all is orthodox as opposed to hereticaland Kattenbusch does not hesitate to admit that in Cyprian we first see how Catholic and Roman came eventually to be regarded as interchangeable terms.
Harnack, Dogmengeschichte, II, Moreover it should be noted that the word Catholica was sometimes used substantively as the equivalent of ecclesia Catholica.
An example is to be found in the Muratorian Fragmentanother seemingly in Tertullian De Praescrip, xxxand many more appear at a later date, particularly among African Writers. Among the Greeks it was natural that while Catholic served as the distinctive description of the one Church, the etymological significance of the word was never quite lost sight of.
Thus in the "Catechetical Discourses" of St. Cyril of Jerusalem c. For this is the peculiar name of the holy body the mother of us all. There can be no doubthowever, that it was the struggle with the Donatists which first drew out the full theological significance of the epithet Catholic and passed it on to the schoolmen as an abiding possession.
When the Donatists claimed to represent the one true Church of Christand formulated certain marks of the Churchwhich they professed to find in their own body, it could not fail to strike their orthodox opponents that the title Catholic, by which the Church of Christ was universally known, afforded a far surer test, and that this was wholly inapplicable to a sect which was confined to one small corner of the world.
The Donatistsunlike all previous hereticshad not gone wrong upon any Christological question. It was their conception of Church discipline and organization which was faulty.
Hence, in refuting them, a more or less definite theory of the Church and its marks was gradually evolved by St. These doctors particularly insisted upon the note of Catholicity, and they pointed out that both the Old and the New Testament represented the Church as spread over all the earth.
Augustine insists upon the consensus of Christians in the use of the name Catholic. His canon of Catholicity is "That which has been believed everywhere, always, and by all. Although belief in the "holy Church" was included in the earliest form of the Roman Creed, the word Catholic does not seem to have been added to the Creed anywhere in the West until the fourth century.
Kattenbusch believes that our existing form is first met with in the "Exhortatio" which he attributes to Gregorius of Eliberis c. In any case the phrase, "I believe in the holy Catholic Church " occurs in the form commented on by Nicetas of Remesiana c.
With regard to the modern use of the word, Roman Catholic is the designation employed in the legislative enactments of Protestant Englandbut Catholic is that in ordinary use on the Continent of Europeespecially in Latin countries. Indeed, historians of all schoolsat least for brevity's sake, frequently contrast Catholic and Protestantwithout any qualification.
In Englandsince the middle of the sixteenth century, indignant protests have been constantly made against the "exclusive and arrogant usurpation" of the name Catholic by the Church of Rome.
The ProtestantArchdeacon Philpot, who was put to death inwas held to be very obstinate on this point see the edition of his works published by the Parker Society ; and among many similar controversies of a later date may be mentioned that between Dr. Bishop, subsequently vicar Apostolicand Dr.
Abbot, afterwards Bishop of Salisburyregarding the "Catholicke Deformed", which raged from to According to some, such combinations as Roman Catholicor Anglo-Catholic, involve a contradiction in terms.
From about the yearbesides the term papist, employed with opprobrious intent, the followers of the old religion were often called Romish or Roman Catholics.
Aurellio was printed in London regarding the different doctrines "dei Protestanti veri e Cattolici Romani". Neither do the Catholics always seem to have objected to the appellation, but sometimes used it themselves.The title of Ray Huang’s book A Year of No Significance: The Ming Dynasty Decline suggests that this book is a work based on a single year in which little occurred.
A great informative and educational site about Islam, Allah, Muhammad,Quran and Muslim,an Islamic perspective of Scientific issues and information about Muslim Scholarships, and many other Islam and Science related resources.
Get this from a library! , a year of no significance: the Ming dynasty in decline. [Ray Huang; Rogers D. Spotswood Collection.].
“IRAN HAS NO NUCLEAR WEAPONS,” Prime Minister Vladimir Putin told his fellow Russians during his annual Question-and-Answer session on December 3, Only a few days before Putin’s nationwide address, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, with threats from Israel on Iran’s nuclear sites. , a Year of No Significance: The Ming Dynasty in Decline (Chinese: 萬曆十五年; pinyin: Wanli Shiwunian) is Chinese historian Ray Huang's most famous work.
First published by Yale University Press in , it examines how a number of seemingly insignificant events in might have caused the downfall of the Ming empire. Founded in , Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections, both formal and informal, to Princeton University.