Thus far, I must admit, I have kept the discussion relatively conventional. Anyone who has read my previous blogs may not think so, but compared to what I really believe, everything has taken place close to the middle ground.
The former, which are considered higher status, are controlled by the state and issued by universities on behalf of the responsible ministry; the latter are controlled and granted by the universities themselves.
Since the implementation of the Bologna Process in France, things are going towards a simplification: The recognised degrees fall in three levels, following the Qualifications Framework of the European Higher Education Area.
These are the licence first cyclemaster second cycle and doctorat third cycle. There are also 5 year ECTS credits engineer's degreeswhich are master's degree.
The Magister and Diplom awarded by universities, both of which require a final thesis, are considered equivalent to a master's degree, although the Diplom awarded by a Fachhochschule university of applied sciences is at bachelor's degree level.
It is not an academic degree but a government licensing examination that future doctors, dentists, teachers, lawyers solicitorsjudges, public prosecutors, patent attorneys, and pharmacists have to pass in order to be eligible to work in their profession. Students usually study at university for three to six year, depending on the field, before they take the first Staatsexamen.
While this is normally at master's level, a few courses e. Sincethe traditional degrees have been replaced by bachelor's Bachelor and master's Master degrees as part of the Bologna process.
The main reasons for this change are to make degrees internationally comparable, and to introduce degrees to the German system which take less time to complete German students typically took five years or more to earn a Magister or Diplom.
Some universities were initially resistant to this change, considering it a displacement of a venerable tradition for the pure sake of globalization. However, universities had to fulfill the new standard by the end of Enrollment into Diplom and Magister programs is no longer possible.
However, programs leading to Staatsexamen did usually not make the transition to Bologna degrees. Doctorates are issued with various designations, depending on the faculty: Multiple doctorates and honorary doctorates are often listed and even used in forms of address in German-speaking countries.
A Diplom, Magister, Master's or Staatsexamen student can proceed to a doctorate. Well qualified bachelor's graduates can also enrol directly into PhD programs after a procedure to determine their aptitude administered by the admitting university.
However, sometimes incorrectly regarded as a degree, the Habilitation is a higher academic qualification in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland that allows further teaching and research endorsement after a doctorate. It is earned by writing a second thesis the Habilitationsschrift or presenting a portfolio of first-author publications in an advanced topic.
The exact requirements for satisfying a Habilitation depend on individual universities. Some German universities no longer require the Habilitation, although preference may still be given to applicants who have this credential, for academic posts in the more traditional fields.
The school leaving qualification attained by students is called the Leaving Certificate. It is considered Level on the framework. This qualification is the traditional route of entry into third level education. There are also Level 5 qualifications in certain vocational subjects e. A higher certificate at Level 6; An ordinary bachelor's degree at Level 7; An honours bachelor's degree or higher diploma at Level 8; A master's degree or postgraduate diploma at Level 9; A doctoral degree or higher doctorate at level After gaining the diploma one can enter university and enrol in any curriculum e.
This tied together in a three-level system both the new qualifications introduced as part of the Bologna process and the older, pre-Bologna qualifications, and covers qualifications from university institutions and higher education institutions for fine arts, music and dance AFAM institutions.
These do not give access to the PhD. The Diploma di specializzazione, which is offered in a few specific professions, takes two to six years and gives the title of specialista.
The Diploma di perfezionamento is a university certificate, aimed at professional training or in specific study fields, which usually takes one year; it is not allocated a level on the framework.
These are one year and two year qualifications respectively and may be offered at second cycle or third cycle level, distinguished by adding I or II after the qualification name. Higher Schools for Language Mediators offer the Diploma di mediatore linguistico, a first cycle degree taking three years ECTS creditswhich gives access to the laurea specialistica.
Education in the Netherlands In the Netherlandsthe structure of academic studies was altered significantly in when the " Tweefasenstructuur " Two Phase Structure was introduced by the Dutch Minister of Education, Wim Deetman.
With this two phase structure an attempt was made to standardise all the different studies and structure them to an identical timetable. Additional effect was that students would be persuaded stringently to produce results within a preset time-frame, or otherwise discontinue their studies.
The two phase structure has been adapted to a bachelor-master structure as a result of the Bologna process.This review presents a thorough survey of academic work on the analysis and application of the mechanics of spinning.
It surveys most literature published in English and the most important publications in German and Japanese languages. Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions..
The term is generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways, culminating in a higher order of emergence.
American Journal of Economics and Sociology ↑. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology (AJES) was founded in , with support from the Robert Schalkenbach Foundation, to encourage the development of transdisciplinary solutions to social caninariojana.com journal is currently undergoing a transition.
It is renewing its original . Introduction. Very soon after dipping your toe in the waters of academic research, you will be struck by the realization that nearly everything that educational psychologists have to say about academic motivation (actually, about nearly everything) seems like little more than mere common sense.
ADVANCED WRITING. IN ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE A Corpus-Based Study of Processes and Products Horvath Jozsef Lingua Franca Csoport ADVANCED WRITING IN ENGLISH.
Vol.7, No.3, May, Mathematical and Natural Sciences. Study on Bilinear Scheme and Application to Three-dimensional Convective Equation (Itaru .