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In addition, there have been ongoing terrorist attacks in a number of theaters of internecine war, including in Iraq, Afghanistan, Kashmir, and in the Israeli—Palestinian conflict in the Middle East.
These specific and ongoing attacks have ensured that terrorism remains a major international concern. However, the phenomenon of terrorism is not new. In 19th-century Russia there was the antistate terrorism of groups such as the Narodniki e. The term antiterrorism is often used in relation to legislation enacted to combat terrorism, whereas the term counterterrorism is more commonly used in relation to the strategies and tactics used by security agencies to combat terrorism.
Indeed, police and military counterterrorism strategy is a well-developed field of study. However, there are strategies Antiterrorism policy essay to combat terrorism, such as de-radicalization, which are neither legislative measures nor measures used by security agencies.
No one denies the reality and impact of terrorism in the contemporary world. Nevertheless, when it comes to defining terrorism there is much disagreement, including among philosophers and politicians, and among international lawyers and policy makers seeking to draft legislation so as to mobilize international support to combat terrorism.
However, the ANC and its supporters claimed that they were not a terrorist organization, but rather a liberation movement engaged in an armed struggle.
State actors, for example, the U. Terrorism, they claim, is an activity undertaken only by nonstate actors. This is, of course, consistent with claiming, as does the U. Some theorists, however, argue that state actors engage in terrorism and that there can be and have been terrorist states.
For example, the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin was, according to this view, a terrorist state. Certainly, Stalin routinely used a great many of the methods of terrorism.
Moreover, many allegedly nonstate terrorist groups claim that the state actors they are fighting against are the terrorists. Consider the Israeli—Palestinian conflict. On the one hand, many Israelis will argue that when Israeli forces engage in targeted assassinations of members of Hamas and the like, they Antiterrorism policy essay not engaged in terrorism but rather are using morally justified counterterrorist tactics.
On the other hand, many Palestinians proclaim these and other acts of the Israeli state to be acts of terrorism perpetrated against the Palestinian people. Historically, terrorist organizations and campaigns have been identified not simply by their political motivations but also by their methods.
The methods they use to achieve their political ends are ones deployed in order to instill fear— quite literally, to terrorize. These methods include assassination, indiscriminate killing, torture, kidnapping and hostage taking, and ethnic cleansing. Here a distinction can be made between terrorist actions per se, such as indiscriminate killing of civilians, and acts that are related to terrorist acts but are not in themselves terrorist acts, for example, weapons procurement and passport forgery.
According to many influential accounts, what especially distinguishes terrorism from other forms of political violence is its favored method of the deliberate killing of innocent civilians by, for example, detonating bombs in crowded buses, trains, marketplaces, and the like.
A complication here is that there are some categories of civilians, such as collaborators, who some have argued are legitimate targets in armed conflict and, therefore, deliberate killing of them might not constitute terrorism.
Be this as it may, here as elsewhere, the existence of hard cases does not remove the fundamental distinction. It is plausible, therefore, that deliberately killing innocent children in the service of political ends should count as terrorism, but that deliberately killing enemy soldiers in self-defense should not count as terrorism.
By virtue of its being a violation of some of the most basic moral rights of citizens, notably the right to life, terrorism is, or ought to be, a crime. However, by virtue of its tactics and the fact that it is often an attack on the state as such, terrorism poses special ethical problems for security agencies.
For one thing, should an investigation of terrorists and their acts of terrorism be entirely assimilated to criminal investigations, both in terms of allowable investigative methods and in terms of whether or not terrorists ought to enjoy the full panoply of moral and legal rights accorded to ordinary criminals e.
This problem is exacerbated by the essentially preventative—as opposed to reactive—function of many terrorist investigations; the point of the investigation is to prevent a terrorist attack rather than determine who performed it after the fact.
For another thing, the investigation of terrorists often involves transjurisdictional issues; these are obviously legal, but they can also be ethical, for example, an Australian citizen being held for interrogation by U.
A further issue concerns the insulation of ordinary citizens from the possibly legitimate infringements of the rights of persons suspected of terrorism.
In theory, in wartime, civilians are a separate category from combatants, and the rules of engagement with enemy combatants or the investigation of combatants suspected, for example, of war crimes do not pertain to noncombatants.
However, terrorists typically operate within the civilian community, and so the investigation of those suspected of terrorism is, for all intents and purposes, an investigation of ordinary citizens.
Accordingly, in the context of investigations of terrorist acts, it may be extremely difficult to suspend or reduce the rights of terrorists e. After all, in the context of an investigation, terrorists and ordinary citizens are in both cases simply ordinary citizens who are suspected, but not convicted, of terrorism.
The problem arises in a particularly acute form prior to the detention of suspects and arises in large part because of the dangers to ordinary citizens posed by terrorists—or at least by terrorists who are not in detention. Of course, in general the investigation of the crimes of dangerous persons raises important ethical issues not necessarily in play in other investigations and arises because of the threat to life and limb that these persons pose for those around them.
However, the problem is greater in the case of terrorists, since they are typically an organized group that targets large numbers of people and does so indiscriminately; it is most evident in the case of suicide bombers.The IC offers students a wide variety of excellent programs to get a jumpstart on a career in intelligence.
Choose your agency, education level, field of study and the type of opportunity you’re looking for, and we’ll match your needs to ours. Terrorism Law Essays. The selection of terrorism law essays below have been submitted to us by students in order to help you with your studies.
Please remember to reference caninariojana.com if you wish to cite any of these essays in your own work. A brief must “[s]tate each point under a separate heading or subheading summarizing the point, and support each point by argument and, if possible, by citation of .
Essay about Terrorism and the Anti-Terrorism Measures. In this paper, the main focus is to discuss about terrorism and the related anti-terrorism measures, such as racial profiling; and how do these policy affect the targeted group. After the terrific 9/11 attacks.
Counter-terrorism policy. September How feelings took over the world. Populist turbulence, viral panics, experts under attack: instinct and emotion have overtaken facts and reason in the.
Indonesia's proposed amendments to the anti-terrorism law might facilitate more Foreign Policy Essay The Unintended Consequences of Amending Indonesia’s Anti-Terrorism Law.
By Julie Chernov The proposed amendments would make significant changes to Indonesia’s detention policies. A revision to Article 25, referred to.