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David Yau-fai Ho It is both a prerogative and an implicit obligation for the socially prominent to be particular about. Face, Hsien-chin Hu says, can be borrowed, struggled for, added to, padded, — all terms indicating a gradual increase in volume. It is built up through initial high position, wealth, power, ability, through cleverly establishing social ties to a number of prominent people, as well as through avoidance of acts that would cause unfavorable comment.
Ho qualified this dichotomy: However, we may continue to use these terms in the senses that Hu has Explaining concept essays.
Succinctly, among college subjects, loss of mianzi is more definitely tied to failure to measure up to one's sense of self-esteem or to what is expected by others, whereas loss of lian is closely tied to transgression of social codes.
Hu's forty-year-old distinction between the two Chinese concepts of faces appears to stand very well, even today.
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For a person to maintain face is important with Chinese social relations because face translates into power and influence and affects goodwill. English[ edit ] The English semantic field for "face" words meaning "prestige; honor" is smaller than the corresponding Chinese field, but historical dictionaries more accurately record its history.
The Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed. The OED2 Face 10 definition distinguishes meanings between native 10a. The country begins to feel that Government consented to arrangements by which China has lost face; the officials have long been conscious that they are becoming ridiculous in the eyes of the people, seeing that where a foreigner is concerned they can neither enforce a Chinese right, nor redress a Chinese grievance, even on Chinese soil.
OED defines Save 8 "To keep, protect or guard a thing from damage, loss, or destruction", and elaborates, 8f. Similarly, to save another's face.
For the earliest usage examples, the OED gives the following. Save one's face is recorded in the Westminster Gazette April 5, Previous writers on face have treated losing face and gaining face simply as if they were opposite outcomes in a social encounter and have thus failed to notice the basic difference between two social processes that are involved.
In the first instance, while it is meaningful to speak of both losing and gaining mien-tzu it is meaningful to speak only of losing lien.
One does not speak of gaining lien because, regardless of one's station in life, one is expected to behave in accordance with the precepts of the culture; correctly conceptualized, exemplary conduct adds not to one's lien, but to one's mien-tzu.
The lose verb in lose face means "fail to maintain" cf. Another usage example is give facewhich is included in the Wiktionary but not the OED2. Among the English words of Chinese originlose face is an uncommon verb phrase and a unique semantic loan translation.
Most Anglo-Chinese borrowings are nouns Yuan Trouble in Nigeria's North - Trouble in Nigeria’s North “‘I saw the soldiers asking the people to lie on the ground. There was a small argument between the soldiers and the civilian JTF.
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Sep 23, · Like the How-to essay, the Process essay explains how something occurs in time. However, rather than telling the reader how to do it, the process essay explains how it is observed to happen.
You can use this sort of essay to explain something that happens in nature, science, or caninariojana.coms: WHAT IS A CRITICAL THINKING ESSAY?
Many college assignments require you to support a thesis. The concept of a critical thinking essay is that you start without an end in mind.
You don't necessarily know how you feel about a subject or what you want to say about the subject you allow the research and your own thinking to determine the .