This is the first time the disease has been detected in West Africa. Cases were first reported from forested areas in south-eastern Guinea. The outbreak has rapidly evolved and several districts and Conakry have reported cases and deaths caused by EVD. A small number of suspected cases and deaths has also been reported from neighbouring countries with all of them having crossed from Guinea.
Approximately 1, CDC responders were deployed to Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone since the start of the response in July to the end of the response at the end of Marchincluding persons with repeat deployments. The responses undertaken in each country shared some similarities but also required Health summary ebola strategies specific to individual country needs.
The size and duration of the response challenged CDC in several ways, particularly with regard to staffing. These lessons include the importance of ongoing partnerships with ministries of health in resource-limited countries and regions, a cadre of trained CDC staff who are ready to be deployed, and development of ongoing working relationships with U.
The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U. Top Overview of Response The Ebola virus disease Ebola epidemic in West Africa Figure 1 began in late in Guinea 1 and quickly spread to neighboring countries during early The epidemic is believed to have originated as an epizootic case of Ebola in Guinea 1 that led to local person-to-person spread of disease, initially in remote semirural areas of West Africa.
However, with subsequent introductions of Ebola into urban areas, new cases occurred rapidly, and contacts moved across borders, facilitating uncontrolled spread. However, with Health summary ebola of untracked contacts across borders facilitating uncontrolled spread, public health authorities realized in June that the outbreak was not contained.
By mid, the situation had evolved into an international public health crisis as the first documented multicountry Ebola epidemic. Deployed staff comprised epidemiologists, data managers, public health advisors, laboratory scientists, communication experts, logistic and administrative support staff, and diverse technical support staff 3.
CDC established in-country Ebola teams in collaboration with the U. This team worked with host country governments and partners as a key advisor on overall response management, including support for establishing EOCs by using an incident management system IMS 4.
The concept of a unified command to manage the response was new in all three of the countries most heavily affected, and the governments of these countries had no previous experience managing a complex outbreak that evolved into a humanitarian crisis.
CDC teams worked within this unique and evolving structure to tailor activities to individual country needs, collaborating closely with WHO and the lead epidemiologist in the ministries of health. In each country, CDC staff provided technical support and guidance to the working groups involved with epidemiology and surveillance; case investigation; laboratory capacity; safe transport of patients suspected of having Ebola, dead bodies, and laboratory specimens; infection control; community engagement; and safe burials.
CDC played an important role in case finding in all three countries by training staff to conduct surveillance activities and by training lead surveillance persons at the county Liberiadistrict Sierra Leoneand prefecture Guinea level.
CDC did not send staff to provide direct patient care but did organize a training course and center for clinicians who had been deployed to work in Ebola treatment units ETUs in the countries affected by Ebola 5.
To maintain the large number of personnel for a long period, CDC drew on staff from its headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, and from other CDC offices and institutes across the United States e.
In addition, CDC recruited domestic public health professionals from state health departments, fellowship programs in the United States, and other agencies within the U. Department of Health and Human Services.
In all three countries, the general response emphasized active surveillance, rapid case investigation, referral of patients with suspected Ebola for treatment in ETUs, contact ascertainment and follow-up, infection control, and safe burials. Although the responses in the three countries were often similar, important differences and approaches also existed in accordance with the stage of the epidemic in each country, the unique cultural influences and language barriers, and variable levels of international aid and partners available in each country.
CDC staff stayed through April, when the outbreak seemed to be waning. However, cases occurred again, and CDC orchestrated a more robust response to assist the Guinean government and other partners.
|Ebola virus disease||Signs and symptoms of Ebola  Onset The length of time between exposure to the virus and the development of symptoms incubation period is between 2 and 21 days,   and usually between 4 and 10 days. The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, whose concentration in the host cell determines when L switches from gene transcription to genome replication.|
|Flu & Ebola Map | Virus & Contagious Disease Surveillance||These numbers are subject to change due to ongoing reclassification, retrospective investigation, and availability of laboratory results. Cases reported before 28 December are shaded blue.|
|CDC’s Response to the – Ebola Epidemic — Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone | MMWR||False color scanning electron microscope image of a single filamentous Ebola virus particle Phylogenetic tree comparing ebolaviruses and marburgviruses.|
Several different ministries of the Guinean government managed the early response; CDC, WHO, and other partners offered primarily technical support. The response was organized into five activities known as pillars, each of which was co-led by a Guinean national alongside an experienced partner: The pillar co-leads convened technical working groups to support the needs of the response.
Although WHO was the main surveillance lead, CDC staff provided substantial technical leadership at both central and prefectural levels, focusing on support for case finding, contact tracing, case investigation, contact listing, investigation and documentation of chains of transmission, and support for improving rigor and oversight in investigating cross-prefecture and cross-border movements of contacts.
CDC, challenged by a limited number of French-speaking staff in Atlanta, recruited French-speaking staff internally within the U. The external partnerships with PHAC and Democratic Republic of the Congo FETP yielded particularly experienced and effective staff who were linguistically and culturally well adapted to the fluid field epidemiology environment.
In Guinea, as in Liberia and Sierra Leone, CDC staff did not play a direct role in Ebola treatment but did collaborate with health care workers and health care facilities on surveillance and community outreach. The French military also established and ran a bed ETU designated for Ebola-infected care providers e.
Foreign Disaster Assistance played key roles in negotiating locations and funding new ETU construction. A marked reticence among Guinean residents to report suspected Ebola cases hampered an early effective response; when the initial outbreak seemed to be waning, cases probably were unreported 7,8.
Community resistance at times challenged the response and accessibility to villages. Deep-seated distrust of the government and outsiders and misconceptions in the country about the disease and the responders drove lack of reporting and, in some cases, hostility toward responders.SUMMARY.
The International Health Regulations () Emergency Committee regarding Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa met for a ninth time on 29 March. On March 23, , the World Health Organization (WHO) reported cases of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in the forested rural region of southeastern Guinea.
The identification of these early cases marked the beginning of the West Africa Ebola epidemic, the largest in history. The initial case, or index.
2 May -- Liberia’s Ministry of Health, WHO and partners held a ceremony at the Ebola treatment facility in Monrovia to celebrate the recovery and discharge of a 2-year-old boy, the final patient in a latest flare-up in Liberia. Summary. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a rare disease that is life-threatening.
The Australian Government Department of Health has issued health advice about Ebola. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease. Ebola virus disease (EVD) Ebola virus is a rare disease that can causes severe symptoms and can be life-threatening.
HealthMap brings together disparate data sources to achieve a unified and comprehensive view of the current global state of infectious diseases. Nov 16, · DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (AFHSB/IB) Northeastern DRC Ebola Surveillance Summary #13 16 NOV CASE REPORT: Between 30 APR and 14 NOV , the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Ministry of Health (MOH) has reported (+32) Ebola virus disease (EVD).