The HIV epidemic in this region is generalised but young women, men who have sex with men, transgender people, sex workers, prisoners and people who inject drugs are at an increased vulnerability to infection. Improved availability of provider-initiated and community-based HIV testing services now means three out of four people living with HIV are aware of their status. The number of people living with HIV in East and Southern Africa continues to increase, but access to antiretroviral treatment is increasing as well. Although laws and cultural traditions vary between Eastern and Southern African countries, there are a number of ingrained cultural, structural and legal barriers that act as barriers to HIV prevention.
The predictions yielded a full range of results, to include stability in infection rate and even a descent in cases in some regions.
Nonetheless, a strongly defined situation shows potential societal disaster in other regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa. The outcomes showed an alarming, systematic growth in the infection and mortality rate, with the possibility of millions of cases to ensue.
It has also been found that in many cases, the adults in these communities the individuals with the means to educate themselves and economically and emotionally support a family are the ones dying of the disease.
There are a number of hypotheses present in regard the origins of HIV, including a linking the disease to the preparation of bushmeat wild animals, including primates, hunted for food in Cameroon and early to midth-century medical practices.
It is also inferred that since the virus transferred itself from chimpanzees or other apes to humans, this might have been the catalyst for origination of HIV in human populations in this region around HIV-2 compounds the problem in Africa.
HIV-2 is genetically different and characterized clinically as having a consistent low viral load for much longer periods of time, and is intrinsically resistant to many common antiretrovirals. Now, many have begun to work toward solutions.
It seeks to promote a different cultural view regarding safer sexual behavior, with an emphasis on fidelity, fewer sexual partners, and a later age of sexual debut. Thus, it seems that the foundation for an effective national response is a strong prevention program.
In addition to stigma, there are several other factors medical professionals site as being detrimental to HIV treatment such as male promiscuity and polygamy in some places.
One unproven cultural factor consistently mentioned is that the practice of female genital mutilation has led to an increased occurrence of AIDS in Africa. The general global scientific community considers the evidence that HIV causes AIDS to be conclusive, thus completely rejecting any denial of such as pseudoscience.
Religious factors In Kenya, safe-sex commercials are banned. In addition, inthe Pope Benedict, on a trip through Africa, banned the use of condoms in general. In the catholic church renewed banning of condoms in catholic schools.
Muslim leaders have taken a similar stance in These are just a few examples demonstrating the significant pressure — and in some cases, condemnation — from both Christian and Muslim religious leaders in regard to AIDS and preventative-care education.
Medical Suspicion Suspicions about modern medicine are common throughout the world, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Such distrust appears to have an essential impact on utilizing medical services. Economic factors The most obvious challenge to the AIDS pandemic is the lack of funding for medical facilities and treatment distribution in developing countries, even with plenty of aid distributed throughout.
Facilities and pharmaceuticals are expensive; patents on many drugs add to the problem of discovering cost effective alternatives. Pharmaceutical industry There was much experimentation performed on numerous medications in Africa. Since the disease is so widespread, many African governments have relaxed their laws in order entice research — which they could otherwise not afford — to be conducted in their countries.
To compound this issue, once approval is obtained for a drug, accessibility of the drug in Africa can become difficult see Economic Factors section. Therefore African countries often lobby against biased practices in the international pharmaceutical industry. However, the fact remains: These companies utilize some money used for work and research investments to secure patents on their intellectual capital investments.
Patents restrict the opportunities to produce generic alternatives, as these pharmaceutical companies recommend drugs to be purchased from them.
Fortunately, despite barriers, research and development of affordable treatment continues. This drug is groundbreaking.
Eventually it will become available to other people in Africa and abroad. Health industry Medical facilities in many African countries are lacking. There are also not enough health care workers available. This is partly due to lack of training available. It is also because of the promise of far better living conditions for workers by foreign medical organizations.
In many African countries, there is no formal health care infrastructure at all. In an attempt to get care in locations there is an option to do so, when family members get sick with HIV or other sicknessesthe family often ends up selling most of their belongings in order to provide health care for the individual.
This is the phenomena where large numbers of qualified doctors, nurses, and other health care professionals emigrate from developing countries to other, more developed countries and do not return.HIV testing is critically important to HIV prevention and treatment.
High testing rates are necessary to ensure that HIV-positive individuals are diagnosed early and start antiretroviral treatment (ART) before they progress to advanced stages of immunosuppression.
HIV/AIDS is a major public health concern and cause of death in many parts of Africa. Although the continent is home to about percent of the world's population, more than two-thirds of the total infected worldwide – some 35 million people – were Africans, of whom 15 million have already died.
Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounted for an estimated 69 percent of all people living with HIV. The story of HIV and Aids in South Africa is one of tragic arrogance, of a hopeful new democracy suddenly threatened from an unexpected direction, of activism and tenacity and, eventually, of one of the largest public health programmes in the world.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began working in South Africa in , assisting nongovernmental and community-based organizations working to combat HIV.
In , at the onset of democracy in South Africa, CDC began to collaborate with the South African National Department of. HIV/AIDS in South Africa. HIV/AIDS is perceived to be more prevalent in South Africa than anywhere else worldwide.
About 12% of the South African population is affected by HIV/AIDS; excluding children, that percentage rises to 18%. 2 TB prophylaxis GUIDELINES FOR TUBERCULOSIS PREVENTIVE THERAPY AMONG HIV INFECTED INDIVIDUALS Background The dramatic spread of the HIV epidemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa in the past decades has.