A report to Advocates for Children in Therapy May by Jean Mercer, PhD, and Linda Rosa, RN Child development research has shown that toddlers usually develop a strong emotional attachment to familiar caregivers who have been sensitive and responsive to them. Young children who have formed an attachment are comforted and feel secure when near familiar people, especially if they are sick, tired, or frightened. If they undergo an abrupt, long-term separation from familiar caregivers, the children grieve and show distress for many months, but can gradually form new attachments. As children get older, they gradually come to need familiar people less and to be more independent, but even in middle childhood and adolescence their family attachments provide a foundation for their successful involvement with school and work outside the home.
When her sister died of complications shortly after giving birth to the Buddha, Mahaprajapati became his step-mother and raised him herself.
Later, after the Buddha established his monastic Order, Mahaprajapati asked if she could join and become a nun. At first the Buddha did not think that women would be able to live the ascetic life that the monks were following, and in general there were doubts about the feasibility of women joining what was then an order of monks.
But Mahaprajapati, at the head of a large group of women, persisted, and when she asked a second time, Isolated essays she and her group of women might establish a parallel order of ordained female practitioners, he agreed. Thus the female Order came into being—separate from the male Order Isolated essays not under male direction.
This became an Order of women, exclusively under the control of the women themselves. The Buddha's aunt therefore not only became the first Buddhist nun to be ordained in the Buddhist Community, but also the first head of the women's Order.
In that sense she is the founding mother of the Buddhist nun's order, just as the Buddha was the founding father of the monk's order. A certain number of women connected to Mahaprajapati became leading teachers of the Order of Nun's.
These formed the first "twelve women apostles", i. This set of twelve "Foremost Bhikshunis" of the Order under Mahaprajapati were: Khema, foremost scholar of Great Wisdom.
Bhadra Yasodharaforemost in miraculous accomplishment mahasiddhi. Gautami, foremost in holiness.
Dharmadina, foremost missionary and teacher. Uppalavanna, foremost in realization. Bhadra Kundali, foremost in psychic faculties. Nanda, foremost of the Forest Meditators. Bhadra Kapila, foremost in remembering past-lives. Patacara, foremost holder of the Vinaya. Sigalakamatra, foremost in "attainment through faith'.
Sonya, foremost in diligence. Mahaprajapati achieved complete realization and was known as an Arhat—an enlightened Saint and the first "female Buddha".
Many of her women followers also attained full Enlightenment and their poetry has been preserved in a large collection of writings known as the Theri-gata, or "Songs of the Women Elders".
Bodhisattva Tara Dolma We are told that long ago there was a Princess named Tara who was very devout.
One day, a monk who did not believe that women could attain Enlightenment, told her that she should pray to be born in a male body in her next life in order to become Enlightened, and thus able to benefit others.
Instead, she vowed to attain Enlightenment as a woman in that very life and thenceforth prayed to always be reborn as a woman. Thus Tara has become a symbol of the fact that any woman can become Enlightened. She represents "Enlightened Womanhood", and stands as a female "Prophet" or "Saviour" among men like Moses, Jesus, Mohammed, and so many others.
Tara is represented in various forms but most commonly she is white or green in color. Although acknowledged to have been an actual living female saint, she has also evolved into something of a "Goddess of Mercy", and her worship is very popular throughout the east, in Nepal, Tibet, China and Japan.
The Twenty-one forms of Tara is a set of icons, each representing Tara, in reference to an aspect of female Buddhahood and protecting against a specific type of suffering.
These remind us of the fact that there have been and have been and continue to be innumerable women Buddhas throughout history and all over the world. Princess Mandarava Princess Mandarava was born in the eighth century, as the daughter of the King of Zahor, a small kingdom of northern India, centered around the capital town of Mandi.
She refused to be married and insisted on becoming a nun instead. When her father refused to agree, she left and became a beggar and was eventually ordained by the Abbot Shantarakshita. The King of Zahor then agreed to accept his daughter's way of life and built a monastery for her and her women followers to meditate in.
Today there is a famous lake known as Rewalsar above the town of Mandi in the Himalayas.English for Specific Purposes World, ISSN , caninariojana.com, Issue 40, vol. 14, Error Analysis of Written English Essays: The case of Students.
Farther Away: Essays [Jonathan Franzen] on caninariojana.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In this incisive collection of speeches and essays, Jonathan Franzen returns with renewed vigor to the themes.
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Our mission is to create a sanctuary online for serious thinking. INTRODUCTION. In , when the author of the essays here assembled was elected professor of political and social science in Yale College, he was, to use his own words, “a young and untried man.” He was selected for his position, not as a specialist, but because he was what he was.
Someone in those days must have been an excellent judge of men. In the early s, Tara Westover was a preteen living in Idaho with her fundamentalist Mormon family.
They were isolated from other people, even her extended family, except for at church. Her.