History of Western Philosophy Special thanks to the Microsoft Corporation for their contribution to my site. The following information came from Microsoft Encarta.
This painting, The Death of Socrates, by the 18th-century artist, David, portrays the famous story of Socrates' death. He was convicted of religious heresy and contamination of the youth and died by drinking hemlock after the people of Athens turned against him.
The citizens of Athens were fed up with the old "wise" man. Socrates, one of ancient Greece's most learned philosophers, found himself on trial for his teachings. The prosecution accused Socrates of corrupting the youth of Athens. A jury of hundreds found Socrates guilty and sentenced him to death.
At the age of 70, Socrates willingly drank hemlock, a powerful poison that put an end to his controversial life. How did it happen that Athenians put to death a great philosopher such as Socrates? In the Renaissance artist, Raphael's School of Athens, Plato shown on the left argues that one should search for truth from above, while his pupil Aristotle argues that answers can be found through observation on Earth.
Throughout his entire life, Socrates questioned everything from Athenian government to Greek religion and the gods themselves. His ultimate goal was finding the truth, which he believed could be reached through reason and knowledge. Socrates was a teacher, but he did not have a classroom, any books, or even a school.
Instead, Socrates lectured publicly. Anyone interested in what he had to say was invited to listen. Socrates practiced a style of teaching that has since become known as the Socratic method. Essentially, Socrates taught through questioning.
He started with simple questions, then progressed to more complex, deeper questions. Through the application of reason and logic, Socrates revealed answers to many questions that led to a greater understanding of the world.
Problems arose because Socrates often questioned the very fundamentals and traditions of Greek society. His constant questioning and searching for the truth were seen as dangerous by many and ultimately led to his death.
Plato's Republic Plato, a student of Socrates, also achieved greatness as a philosopher. Unlike Socrates, however, Plato chose to write his ideas down. In one of his most renowned works, The Republic, Plato outlined his vision of the ideal state. Greek philosophers were quite prolific, and left behind many wonderful dialogues on life, morality, death, and religion.
Surprisingly, Plato's republic was not very democratic. Plato was greatly disturbed at the way the mass of Athenians had agreed to put to death his brilliant teacher and mentor, Socrates. Plato believed that uneducated people should not have right to make important decisions for everyone.
Instead, Plato envisioned a society with many classes in which each class contributed what it could. In his ideal society, farmers grew the food for the republic, soldiers defended the republic, and a class of intelligent, educated philosophers ruled the republic.
Not surprisingly, Plato lived at a time when democratic society in Athens was in decline. Such then, I said, are our principles of theology --some tales are to be told, and others are not to be told to our disciples from their youth upwards, if we mean them to honour the gods and their parents, and to value friendship with one another.
Yes; and I think that our principles are right, he said. But if they are to be courageous, must they not learn other lessons besides these, and lessons of such a kind as will take away the fear of death?
Can any man be courageous who has the fear of death in him?
Certainly not, he said. And can he be fearless of death, or will he choose death in battle rather than defeat and slavery, who believes the world below to be real and terrible? Then we must assume a control over the narrators of this class of tales as well as over the others, and beg them not simply to but rather to commend the world below, intimating to them that their descriptions are untrue, and will do harm to our future warriors.
That will be our duty, he said. Then, I said, we shall have to obliterate many obnoxious passages, beginning with the verses Plato, "The Republic," B. Aristotle wrote about and studied many subjects, including biology, physics, metaphysics, literature, ethics, logic, art, and more.
He emphasized the importance of observation and the gathering of data.CLAS Greek and Roman Myths of Heroes Language, Philosophy, & Culture 40 CLAS Myths and Cult of the Greek Gods Language, Philosophy, & Culture 40 CLAS Greek Art and Archaeology: In Search of the Trojan.
Aristotle ( - B.C.) was an important Greek philosopher from the Socratic (or Classical) period, mainly based in caninariojana.com is one of the most important founding figures in Western Philosophy, and the first to create a comprehensive system of philosophy, encompassing Ethics, Aesthetics, Politics, Metaphysics, Logic and science..
His own school of philosophy, known as Aristotelianism or. The Paideia movement is inspired by the following principles, calling for high-quality education for all children.
Learn to teach the Paideia method. The 12 principles of Paideia philosophy We, the members of the Paideia Group, hold these truths to be the principles of the Paideia Program: • th.
Mary Bellis wrote on the topics of inventors and inventions for 18 years and was a film producer and director. Updated September 24, Archimedes was a mathematician and inventor from ancient Greece. Regarded as one of the greatest mathematicians in history, he’s the father of integral calculus.
The only major contribution to Western philosophy in three centuries following the death of Augustine was made by the 6th-century Roman statesman Boethius, who revived interest in Greek and Roman philosophy, particularly Aristotle's logic and metaphysics.
The study of Greek philosophy places three unique demands on its students. A. Ancient Greek is a difficult language to translate adequately into English.
Therefore, several extremely important philosophical words will be left.