She has also worked as an employee assistance program counselor and a substance-abuse professional. Miller holds a Master of Social Work and has extensive training in mental health diagnosis, as well as child and adolescent psychotherapy. Support and love are crucial for helping a grieving child deal with parental loss. Supporting the child and helping her grieve is crucial for her adjustment and overall well-being.
Children during the Black Death Shona Kelly Wray, University of Missouri-Kansas City Introduction The Black Death was the first and most lethal outbreak of a disease that entered Italy during the end of and the beginning of and then spread across Europe in the following few years.
It is generally accepted despite recent arguments to the contrary that this most famous medieval epidemic was caused by bubonic plague. This disease, which was identified in the late 19th century, is endemic among some rodent populations around the globe today, but does not pose a major health risk due to the efficacy of modern antibiotics.
The situation, of course, was very different in the Middle Ages. The Black Death was brought on, it is believed, by an epizootic, or animal epidemic, among marmots in central Asia that caused the flea Xenopsylla cheopsis which passes the bacillus Yersinia pestis to leave its preferred host and search for new sources of food, that is, human blood.
Rats brought infected fleas, the plague vector, into Europe on ships leaving the Black Sea and shores of the eastern Mediterranean. The plague entered European sea ports and traveled inland along trade routes.
The effect was devastating. Historians estimate death tolls of between a third and a half of the European population. For medieval Italy it appears that some urban areas, such as Venice, Florence, and Siena, suffered staggeringly high mortality rates of over 50 percent.
How did people react to this awful catastrophe? The governmental records of Italian cities present a mixed picture of the actions of civic leaders in the face of plague.
In some areas, cities rapidly passed laws that attempted to prevent the entrance and spread of disease. They renewed sanitation laws designed to reduce the presence of miasma, or bad air, which medieval people believed caused disease.
Thus, laws curtailed the activities of butchers, tanners, or others who worked with animal carcasses that could rot and produce miasma. The mobility of people and goods, such as woolen cloths that may trap the miasma, was restricted.
Other laws regulated the location of burials and disposal of corpses. In other cities, however, it appears that government was reduced to an ineffective shadow as officials died in huge numbers and efforts to replace them could not keep up.
Church records have revealed the actions of ecclesiastical organizations. Bishops all over Europe consecrated new ground for burials and arranged intercessory processions.
Priests were called to celebrate masses, give sermons, and lead their parishioners in processions of prayer to beg for merciful relief from the wrath of God, which was generally believed to have brought on the epidemic.
Clerics urged all individuals to confess, be penitent, and carry out acts of pious charity in order to pacify God. Thus, evidence can be found that the various communities in medieval Europe made strong attempts to counteract and deal with the crisis.
The popular view today of the Black Death, however, is one of social breakdown. This is because many chroniclers and literary authors of the time described the actions of townspeople in terms of panic, fear, and flight. Faced with a hideous—bubonic plague produces large, dark, and smelly swellings on its victims—and frightening new disease people fled to protect themselves.
Chroniclers reported that doctors, clergy, and civil servants such as notaries refused to come to the aid of the ill. The chroniclers' accounts provide the most vivid picture of the social experience of this massive mortality and have become the standard description presented in World and Western Civilization textbooks.the long-term impact of parent death on adult children in midlife by partially replicating Objective of This Study The objective of this qualitative study is to describe the long-term effects of parent death on adult children, who have experienced the deaths of one or both parents, in midlife, and report the results.
The organization was founded by Jon and Jill Albert, shortly before Jill’s death to cancer at age Their children were then 11 and “When Jill passed away, people who lost parents when they were young told me it would be a year impact for the kids,” says Mr. Albert, Death in the family - helping children to cope: the impact on children and adolescents: information for parents, carers and anyone who works with young people About this leaflet This is one in a series of factsheets for parents, teachers and young people entitled Mental Health and Growing Up.
Children and Parental Death: Effects and School-Based Interventions by Loni A. Smith A Research Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the. Children of different ages have different styles of adapting and different abilities to understand abstract concepts such as death, love, and marriage.
The 4-year-old may have little appreciation of the finality of death or why divorced couples do not take vacations together.
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for children, adolescents, and young adults age 5-toyear-olds. The majority of children and adolescents who attempt suicide have a significant mental health disorder, usually depression.